Summarize Spoken Text

You will hear a short report. Write a summary for a fellow student who was not present. You should write 50-70 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points presented in the lecture.

International environmental law(国际环境保护法)

Updated at: 2018-11-30 新题 预测 机经题

Before we consider international environmental law and climate change we need to consider domestic legislation, as it is within the sovereign states that international law is put into practice. This reflects the environmentalists’ maxim, ‘think globally act locally’. United Kingdom legislative control over the impacts of men’s activity on the environment is not new. As long as the reign of Charles II the main concern was the production of smoke from the burning of sea coal. Almost all areas of trade and industry were subject to very detailed legislative controls at that time, although some were governed by self-regulation’ in the form of guilds, who regulated both supply and methods of production. However, the measures implemented were mostly ineffective because then, as now, the specifying of legal duties and standards without providing any appropriate enforcement merely indicated good intentions but were of little practical effect.

The next stage was prompted by the Industrial Revolution with the urbanization of society and its profound effects on the environment. Local industrialists used the Adam Smith model to maximize their economic benefit, but this was to the detriment of the local government with the operation of ‘Gresham’s Law’, that is, the bad drives out the good. Those industrialists who were concerned for either the health of their employees or the environment faced higher costs than their competitors. The result was the need for increasingly comprehensive statutory controls on the discharge of pollutant into various receiving media.

工业社会的革命及其对环境的深远影响是工业革命的下一个阶段。当地工业家使用亚当·斯密(Adam Smith)模型来最大化其经济利益,但这对实行“格里舍姆法”的地方政府有害,也就是说,坏事驱逐了好货。那些关注员工健康或环境的工业家所面临的成本要比竞争对手高。结果是需要对污染物排放到各种接收介质中的法规进行日益全面的管制。