Summarize Spoken Text

You will hear a short report. Write a summary for a fellow student who was not present. You should write 50-70 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points presented in the lecture.

Music and language(音乐和语)

Updated at: 2018-11-30 新题 预测 机经题

Both music and language have a lot of similarities: They involve complex sequences that unfold in time. They are both forms of communication. This has interested all the world's best philosophers from Plato going back over 2000 years.

Scientists like Darwin wrote about possible evolutionary links between music and language in his book the Descent of Man and so did artists like Leonard Bernstein who gave a series of lectures at Harvard in the 70s. He spoke about the grammar of language and the grammar of music from Noam Chomsky's theories. So, it's a persistent question. It keeps drawing interest from scientists today but there are some basic obvious similarities. For example, both music and language have rhythmic systematic patterns of timing, accent and grouping. Both language and music have melody-structured patterns of pitch, over time. Both have syntax. Discrete elements like words or notes and principles for combining those elements into sequences. Sentences are just random sequences of words. Both convey affect which means emotion using sound. You can make out a lot of emotion from a person’s voice and music has the characteristic of providing emotions like happiness or sadness.

像达尔文这样的科学家在他的《人类的后裔》一书中谈到了音乐和语言之间可能存在的进化联系,像伦纳德·伯恩斯坦这样的艺术家也是如此,他在70年代在哈佛大学做了一系列演讲。他从诺姆·乔姆斯基(Noam Chomsky)的理论中谈到了语言语法和音乐语法。因此,这是一个持续存在的问题。今天它一直吸引着科学家的兴趣,但是有一些基本的明显相似之处。例如,音乐和语言都具有定时,重音和分组的节奏性系统模式。随着时间的流逝,语言和音乐都具有旋律结构的音高模式。两者都有语法。离散元素(如单词或注释)以及将这些元素组合为序列的原理。句子只是单词的随机序列。两者都通过声音传达情感,这意味着情感。您可以从一个人的声音中分辨出很多情感,音乐具有提供诸如幸福或悲伤之类的情感的特征。